After you download and add subtitles to Plex, you thought that you could eventually enjoy your favorite movies or TV shows with clear bold subtitles. However, life is not a bed of roses. When you stream movies via Plex app, you're surprised to find that subtitles display as none.
Supposing your Plex subtitles come from the external source and don't show up in Plex, firstly check if it's named correctly and encoded with UTF-8 in a appropriate way. If there is no problem, go ahead to meticulously check if the file name extension of Plex movie is hidden on your Windows PC. If so, rename your subtitles file to remove the name extension so as to keep consistent with your Plex movie.
As is known to all, Plex officially announced that it supports a full array of subtitle formats, including .srt, .smi, .ssa, .ass, .vtt. However, not all of them can be perfectly compatible with all Plex apps. Embedded SRTs (tx3g) in MP4/M4V will appear in XBMC and VLC, but not Plex desktop client. Plex desktop client does uphold such subtitles inside MKV containers, however.
To resolve these troubles, a better solution is to transcode subtitles to Plex app/client supported sub format and add subs to movies before Plex streaming to avoid highly resource-consuming problem and Plex buffering issue. Try WinX HD Video Converter Deluxe, which lets you add external subtitles (.srt, .ssa, .ass) to movie and TV shows without transcoding. In terms of movies with embedded tx3g subtitle in MP4/M4V, it can only convert MP4/M4V to MKV container format for better compatibility with Plex desktop client. More features like convert H265 to H264, downscale 4K to 1080p, transcode MKV/Xvid/VOB/M2TS/MP4, download free movie TV series, etc. are available for free, No subscription fee.
Warm prompt: with self-explanatory interface, anyone with whatever kind of skill level can figure out how to put external subtitles to Plex file without transcoding and adjust subtitles to be sync with video without consulting any tutorial. As for others who would like to get the hang of WinX converter, please check its complete help article.
Solution 6: Turn Burn Subtitles to ALWAYS. (Not recommended) Access to Settings in Plex app > Web > Player > tap Burn Subtitles > change the default "Automatic" to "Always". This enables subtitles auto transcoding feature within Plex Media Server.
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Anode-free lithium metal batteries are the most promising candidate to outperform lithium metal batteries due to higher energy density and reduced safety hazards with the absence of metallic lithium anode during initial cell fabrication. In general, researchers report capacity retention, reversible capacity, or rate capability of the cells to study the electrochemical performance of anode-free lithium metal batteries. However, evaluating the behavior of batteries from limited aspects may easily overlook other information hidden deep inside the meretricious results or even lead to misguided data interpretation. In this work, we present an integrated protocol combining different types of cell configuration to determine various sources of irreversible coulombic efficiency in anode-free lithium metal cells. The decrypted information from the protocol provides an insightful understanding of the behaviors of LMBs and AFLMBs, which promotes their development for practical applications.
However, in most of the published works, the electrochemical performance of LMBs/AFLMBs is often discussed by comparing capacity retention, reversible capacity, or rate capability, which easily overlooks or even misunderstands the information that is concealed by the meretricious results when adopting only one or two points of view. To systematically evaluate the electrochemical performance of both LMBs and AFLMBs, and unfold all the messages hidden within the battery, one has to comprehensively examine the information from all the possible perspectives. More importantly, integrating all the unraveled phenomena and messages to have a better overall evaluation of the battery systems is essential. One efficient way is to study the irreversible coulombic efficiency (irr-CE), which may represent the side reactions and sources of capacity loss in the battery. Meng et al.32 demonstrated an analytical method of titration gas chromatography (TGC) to quantify the contribution of dead Li to the total irr-CE in Li/Cu cells, identifying dead Li as the major reason accounted for the capacity loss of Li/Cu cells. They comprehensively discussed the formation of inactive Li and determined the origin of irr-CE of Li anodes within Li/Cu cells by decoupling the dead Li and SEI formation, which provides strategies for more-efficient Li plating and stripping on Cu substrate. However, the important information of the irr-CE or capacity loss from the cathode and cross-talk effects in cathode/Li or anode-free cathode/Cu cells could not be extracted from the TGC method. Thus, there is still a lack of holistic methodology to identify and quantify the irr-CEs in LMBs and AFLMBs.
However, by replacing Li with Cu as the working electrode in Li/Cu cell as shown in Fig. 2b, it is possible to quantify the inactive Li on the Cu electrode from the irr-CE of the Li/Cu cell in each cycle. Figures 3a and 3d show the scheme of Li/Cu cell at fully plated and stripped state in the first cycle. In the Li/Cu cell, as the excess Li is from the Li electrode, resulting in the Cu side as the limiting electrode. As there is no excessive metallic Li on Cu as it was in Li/Li cell to compensate for the irreversible consumption of active Li on Cu. The irreversible phenomena observed mainly reflect the behaviors of the Cu electrode. In general, the irr-CE in Li/Cu cells can be separated into two main sources, namely dead Li and SEI formation. In particular, the irr-CE is normally higher in the first cycle of Li/Cu owing to the initial extra SEI formation on the Cu surface, causing a larger irr-CE than that in the subsequent cycles, denoted as the first extra SEI (red bar in Fig. 3g). Thus, we proposed that the irr-CE of Li/Cu cell in the first cycle contains both first extra SEI formation and dead Li+ sub. SEI (green bar in Fig. 3g). We have combined the contribution of dead Li and subsequent SEI owing to the fact that it is not possible to easily separate the fraction of which unless an experimental method like the TGC method is performed, and the fraction of subsequent SEI is not stable in the subsequent cycles owing to the dendritic Li caused fracture34. Therefore, the irr-CE originated from the first SEI formation (red bar in Fig. 3g) can be calculated by subtracting the value in the first cycle with that of the second cycle from the Li/Cu cell protocol. To conclude, the Li/Cu cell is a useful protocol to provide reliable information for the study of electrolyte27,28,31, and surface engineering approaches29,36,37 for mitigating the irr-CE ascribed to dead Li and SEI formation.
The third protocol is a cathode/Li cell, and the charge/discharge curves are shown in Fig. 2c, namely a half-cell for studying phenomena taking place at the cathode. When the cathode/Li cell is fully charged, Li+ is de-intercalated from NMC and plated onto the Li anode along with the formation of dendritic or mossy Li (Fig. 3b). In reverse, Li+ is stripped from the Li anode with some dead Li left on it and intercalated back into NMC (Fig. 3e). However, as there is a significant amount of active Li on the Li electrode compared with that in the cathode electrode, i.e., the capacity ratio of the anode to cathode (A/C) is >1 and cathode is the limiting electrode, the excess metallic Li will compensate the active Li loss due to dead Li formation and reductive electrolyte decomposition at the anode side, leading them invisible from the irr-CE observed. As the irreversible reactions at the anode cannot be observed, this protocol acts as an efficient tool to extract information relating to the irreversible reactions at the cathode, including oxidative electrolyte decomposition (Ox. E.D.), cathode degradation, and first intrinsic irreversible capacity of cathode material (first irr-cap. of cathode) in the first cycle38,39,40,41,42. Generally, the irr-CE of cathode/Li cells in the first cycle is often found larger due to the initial Ox. E.D. and the correlated cathode-electrolyte interphase (CEI) formation than that in the subsequent cycles. In particular, the first irr-capacity of the cathode is significantly larger and often observed in layered oxide cathode materials, which can be attributed to mainly the slow lithium kinetics at high lithium contents and partially the formation of Li2MO2-like phases. This intrinsic irr-capacity cannot be recovered in the absence of deep discharge of the cell or unless cycling at the higher temperature to eliminate the kinetics limitation based on our own experiments and the previously reported works (Supplementary Fig. 3)38,39,40. Based on the above mentioned three origins of irr-CE at the cathode, we can dissect the irr-CEs of cathode/Li cell by first quantifying the first cycle irr-CE as the first irr-cap. of the cathode (with Ox. E.D. included, yellow bar in Fig. 3g). Second, in the subsequent cycles, the origins of irr-CEs can be separated into two sources. When the reversible capacity remains the same and stable, the irr-CE of the cell can be attributed to the subsequent oxidative electrolyte decomposition (Sub. Ox. E.D., blue bar in Fig. 3g) with the consequent CEI formation included; however, when the reversible capacity starts to fade, then the irr-CE would become the sum of cathode degradation (denoted as cathode degrad. and shown in gray bar in Fig. 3g) and sub. Ox. E.D. owing to the fact that capacity fading is directly related to cathode degradation. To be more specific, the fraction of cathode degradation can be calculated from the slope of the fitted line of the normalized discharged capacity retention based on equation (1) in the supporting information. Thus, the fraction of sub. Ox. E.D. within the capacity fading region could be finally quantified as the difference between the total irr-CE of cathode/Li cell and that of cathode degradation. 2b1af7f3a8